Volume 1 Issue 2 - 2019
Relation between Urine pH and Agoraphobia
Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Manaal Khalid, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.
Received: September 06, 2019; Published: September 20, 2019
Agoraphobia is situation of fearing from crowded environment because of unsecured nature of a person, it may consider as anxiety disorder in which a person does not want to go in open places and highly crowded malls, public transportation or being in line. This situation causes by genes as well as many others factors including the surrounding environment. It can be cured by proper counselling and the duration of this therapy depends upon mental condition. Normal Ph of body is very important in maintaining electrolytes balances. If pH is higher than 7 it means alkaline environment is more while if pH is less than 7 it is considered as acidic environment in the body that is considered as a symptom of serious illness. In this survey links between agoraphobia and body pH is studied through survey in which urine test is performed by dipstick method. By comparing the values it is considered that some relation is present between urine PH and agoraphobia.
Keywords: Agoraphobia, urinalysis, pH level
Agoraphobia is a mental condition in which a person does not like crowded or open places filled with crowd (Goldstein & Chambless 1978). He feels disturbed in so many people due to many environmental as well as genetic factors. Sometimes it is present in the whole family after the occurrence of any tragic event and such people don’t want to visit such places again as they fells themselves insecure there. Symptoms of agoraphobia include panic attacks, which are only absent in 0.17 people with agoraphobia. Such people only travel with companion and fell home as a secure place. The treatment can be done through Cognitive behavioural therapy and antidepressants are given to patient during travelling. Such attacks are more in adults as compared to old ones and can last from six to two years.
A pH test determines the level of alkalinity or acidity in the urine. We can measure the impact of many diseases or diets by checking the level of pH in the urine. As the normal pH or urine is about 6.0 and the pH above or below this level indicates the chances of kidney stones. By checking the pH of urine, we can adjust our diet accordingly to minimize the chances of kidney stones. The pH of urine is measured through urinalysis which is a painless test that is performed through clean-catch method. Before this test, doctor suggests to stop taking few medicines as they can increase or decrease the normal pH of urine. If results go toward higher ph it indicates higher basic environment of our body which may be due to dehydration, diarrhoea, starvation while higher alkaline environment indicates kidney failure, pyloric obstruction, vomiting etc,. In short the level or urine pH indicates the internal condition of our body and provides important clues about disease.
Materials and Methodology
A survey is performed between student in which students including males and females of different ages were selected at random. Materials used during process were gloves, tissue papers, strips container, watch, and we told all of students to collect their urine in the urine cup. After this the colour of urine was checked and then we performed dipstick test(Devillé et al. 2004). Strips were isolated from container and then expiry date was checked. After this strips were removed from urine and extra urine was tapped off from strips by handling them in horizontal position. Then we waited for two to four minutes to let the boxes on strips to change their colour. Ten boxes present on strips soaked with some enzymes change their colour in different time. Then during abnormal condition, the colour changes in pH box on strip was compared with the scale provide from the manufacturer. Then all the values were written down on the paper and a table was drawn in which we compared the relation between pH.
|Serial No.||Gender||Presence of Agoraphobia||Absence of Agoraphobia||P value|
|1||Male||6.36 ± 0.85||6.45 ± 0.93||0.4*|
|2||Female||6.17 ± 0.78||6.08 ± 0.59||0.17*|
|3||Both||6.21 ± 0.79||6.20 ± 0.72||0.97*|
Table 1: Urine PH (Mean ± SD) relation with Agoraphobia.
As results obtained after putting TTest on males and female having phobia, then female and males without agoraphobia and then males and females with both situation, are 0.4*, 0.1* and 0.97*.as results values more than 0.1 shows non significant results(0.1> non significant). So we can say there is some relation found between pH of urine and agoraphobia.
It is concluded, PH of urine is also affected by presence of agoraphobia.
- Devillé W L, Yzermans J C, Van Duijn N P, Bezemer P D, Van Der Windt D A,Bouter L M, (2004). The urine dipstick test useful to rule out infections. A meta-analysis of the accuracy. BMC urology 4:4.
- Goldstein A J, Chambless D L, (1978) A reanalysis of agoraphobia. Behavior Therapy.
Citation: Muhammad Imran Qadir and Manaal Khalid. (2019). Relation between Urine pH and Agoraphobia. Journal of Pharmacy and Drug Development 1(2).
Copyright: © 2019 Manaal Khalid. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.